low Atlantic reconstructed Ruddiman1989

Core/Site name:





marine sediments (downcore)

Proxy measurement:

SST foraminifera

Sampling resolution:



1642.600 ka BP


245.600 ka BP


We analyze five high-resolution time series spanning the last 1.65 m.y.: benthic foraminiferal delta18O and delta13O, percent CaCO3, and estimated sea surface temperature (SST) at North Atlantic Deep Sea Drilling Project site 607 and percent CaCO3 at site 609. Each record is a multicore composite verified for continuity by splicing among multiple holes. These climatic indices portray changes in northern hemisphere ice sheet size and in North Atlantic surface and deep circulation. By tuning obliquity and precession components in the delta18O record to orbital variations, we have devised a time scale (TP607) for the entire Pleistocene that agrees in age with all K/Ar-dated magnetic reversals to within 1.5%. The Brunhes time scale is taken from Imbrie et al. [1984], except for differences near the stage 17/16 transition (0.70 to 0.64 Ma). All indicators show a similar evolution from the Matuyama to the Brunhes chrons: orbital eccentricity and precession responses increased in amplitude; those at orbital obliquity decreased. The change in dominance from obliquity to eccentricity occurred over several hundred thousand years, with fastest changes around 0.7 to 0.6 Ma. The coherent, in-phase responses of delta18O, delta13O, CaCO3 and SST at these rhythms indicate that northern hemisphere ice volume changes have controlled most of the North Atlantic surface-ocean and deep-ocean responses for the last 1.6 m.y. The delta13O, percent CaCO3, and SST records at site 607 also show prominent changes at low frequencies, including a prominent long-wavelength oscillation toward glacial conditions that is centered between 0.9 and 0.6 Ma. These changes appear to be associated neither with orbital forcing nor with changes in ice volume

Data entered by name:

Martrat, Belen

Data entered by email:

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Main reference(s):

Ruddiman, W. F., Raymo, M. E., Martinson, D. G., Clement, B. M. & Backman, J. Pleistocene Evolution: Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheets and North Atlantic Ocean. Paleoceanography 4, 353-412, doi:10.1029/PA004i004p00353 (1989).Lang, N. & Wolff, E. W. Interglacial and glacial variability from the last 800 ka in marine, ice and terrestrial archives. Clim. Past 7, 361-380, doi:10.5194/cp-7-361-2011 (2011).

Link to reference 1:


Link to reference 2:


Data storage link 1:


Data storage link 2:



woa09t_an0: 18.836000ºC

Current dating method:

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Annual snow acc rate:

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Category: PIGS