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Dr. Aixue Hu

Global Climate Dynamics Division
P.O. Box 3000
80307 Boulder

  +1 303 497 1334

Expertise & Interests

Official PAGES function(s)        PAGES SSC Member & Thresholds and Tipping Points IA leader
PAGES interests        CVAS - Climate Variability Across Scales, PALSEA
Topics        Climate dynamics, Climate variability, Modeling, Ocean dynamics, Sea level and coastal processes, Thresholds and abrupt changes
Timescales        Anthropocene (last 100 years), Future projection
Regions        Global, World ocean
Sector        Research
Discipline        Modeling, (Paleo)climatology, (Paleo)oceanography
Computers        NCL, Unix



Weijer, W., W. Cheng, O. A. Garuba, A. Hu, B. T. Nadiga, 2020, CMIP6 Models Predict Significant 21st Century Decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., accepted.
Hu, A., L. V. Roekel, W. Weijer, O. A. Garuba, W. Cheng, B. T. Nadiga, 2020, Role of AMOC in transient climate response to greenhouse gas forcing in two coupled models, J. Climate, 33, 5845-5859, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-1027-1.
Wu,T., F. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Jie, Y. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Li, J. Yan, X. Liu, X Lu, H. Tan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, and A. Hu, 2020, Beijing Climate Center Earth System Model version (BCC-ESM1): Model Description and Evaluation of Aerosol Simulation, Geoscientific Model Development, 13, 977-1005, doi:10.5194/gmd-13-977-2020.

Lin, Z., Y. Li, Y. Liu, and A. Hu, 2020, Decadal Reduction of Southeastern Australian Autumn Rainfall in the Early 1990s: A Response to Sea Surface Temperature Warming in the Subtropical South Pacific, J. Climate, 23, 2249-2261, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0686.1.

Shields, C. A., N. Rosenbloom, S. Bates, C. Hannay, A. Hu, A. E. Payne, J. J. Rutz, J. Truesdale, 2019, Meridional Heat Transport during Atmospheric Rivers in High Resolution CESM Climate Projections, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 14702-14712, doi: 10.1029/2019GL085565.

Si, D., A. Hu, H. Wang and Q. Chao, 2019, Predicting the Atlantic Muldidecadal Variability from initialized simulations, J. Climate, 32, 8701-8711, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0055.1.

Zhang, L., W. Han, K. B. Karnauskas, G. A. Meehl, A. Hu, N. Rosenbloom, T. Shinoda, 2019, Indian Ocean Warming Trend Reduces Pacific Warming Response to Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases: An Interbasin Thermostat Mechanism, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 10882-10890, doi:10.1029/2019GL084088.

Little, C. M., A. Hu, C. W. Hughes, G. D. McCarthy, C. G. Piecuch, R. M. Ponte, M. D. Thomas, 2019, The Relationship between United States East Coast Sea Level and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: a Review, JGR-Ocean, 124, doi: 10.1029/2019JC015152.

Weijer, W., W. Cheng, S. S. Drijfhout, A. V. Fedorov, A. Hu, L. C. Jackson, W. Liu, E. L. McDonagh, J. V. Mecking, and J. Zhang, 2019, Stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: A Review and Synthesis , J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, 124, doi: 10.1029/2019JC015083.

Li, Y., J. Feng*, J. Li, and A. Hu, 2019, Equatorial windows and barriers for stationary Rossby wave propagation, J. Climate, 32, 6117-6135, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0722.1. *Corresponding authors.

Wu*, T, A. Hu*, F. Gao, J. Zhang, and G. A. Meehl, 2019, New insights into nature variability and anthropogenic forcing of global/regional climate evolution, npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 2, Article number: 18, doi:10.1038/s41612-019-0075-7. *Corresponding authors.

He*, C., Z. Liu*, A. Hu, 2019, Role of Ocean in the Transient Response of Atmospheric and Oceanic Heat Transports to Global Warming in the 21st Century, Nature Climate Change, 9, 222-226, doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0387-3. *Corresponding authors.

Lin, P., Z. Yu, J. Lu*, M. Ding, A. Hu, H. Liu*, 2019, Two Regimes of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: Cross-basin Dependent or Atlantic-intrinsic, Science Bulletin,, 64, 198-204, doi:10.1016/j.scib.2018.12.027. *Corresponding authors.

Cao, D., Q. Wu*, A. Hu, Y. Yao and S. Liu, 2019: Linear and Nonlinear Winter Atmospheric Responses to Extreme Phases of Low Frequency Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Variability, Climate Dynamics, 52, 49-68, doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4127-1. *corresponding author

Li, Y., W. Han, A. Hu, and G.A. Meehl, 2018: Multidecadal changes of the upper Indian Ocean heat content during 1965-2015, J. Climate, 31, 7863-7884, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0116.1.

Han, W., D. Stammer, G. A. Meehl, A. Hu, F. Sienz and L. Zhang, 2018, Multi-Decadal Trend and Decadal Variability of the Regional Sea Level over the Indian Ocean since the 1960s: Roles of Climate Modes and External Forcing, Climate, 6, 0, doi:10.3390/cli6020051.

Yu, T., P. Guo, J. Cheng, A. Hu, P. Lin, Y. Yu, 2018, Reduced Connection between the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Southern Hemisphere Circulation on Interannual timescales under Intense Global Warming, Climate Dynamics, 51, 3943-3955, doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4121-7.

Hu, A. and S. C. Bates, 2018: Internal climate variability and projected future regional steric and dynamic sea level rise. Nature Communications, 9, 1068, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03474-8.

Xu, Y. and A. Hu, 2018: How would the 21st-century warming influence Pacific decadal variability and its connection to North American rainfall: assessment based on a revised procedure for IPO/PDO, J. Climate, 31, 1547-1563, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0319.1.

Hu, Z., A. Hu*, Y. Hu, 2018: Contributions of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation to Global Ocean Heat Content Distribution, J. Climate, 31, 1227-1244, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0204.1. *corresponding author.

Han, W., G. A. Meehl, A. Hu, J. Zheng, J. Kenigson, J. Vialard, B. Rajagopalan, and Yanto, 2017: Decadal Variability of the Indian and Pacific Walker Cells Since the 1960s: Do They Covary on Decadal Timescale? J. Climate, 30, 8447-8468, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0783.1.

Si, D. and A. Hu, 2017: Internally generated and externally forced multidecadal oceanic modes and their influence on the summer rainfall over East Asia. J.Climate, 30, 8299-8316, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0065.1.

Hu, A.,G. A. Meehl, D. Stammer, W. Han, W. G. Strand, 2017, Role of perturbing ocean initial condition in simulated regional sea level change, Water, 9, 401, doi:10.3390/w9060401.

Otto-Bliesner, B. L., A. Jahn, R. Feng, E. C. Brady, A. Hu, and M. Löfverström, 2017, Changes in Arctic Gateways Amplify North Atlantic Warming in the Late Pliocene, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 957-964, doi: 10.1002/2016GL071805.

Han, W., G. A. Meehl, D. Stammer, A. Hu, B. Hamlington, J Kenigson, H. Palanisamy, P. Thompson, 2017, Spatial Patterns of Sea Level Variability Associated with Natural Internal Climate Modes, Serv. Geophys., 38, 217-250, DOI 10.1007/s10712-016-9386-y.

Bakker, P., A. Schmittner, J. T. M. Lenaerts, A. Abe-Ouchi, D. Bi, M. R. van den Broeke, W.-L. Chan, A. Hu, R. L. Beadling, S. J. Marsland, S. H. Mernild, O. A. Saenko, D. Swingedouw, A. Sullivan, and J. Yin, 2016, Fate of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Strong decline under continued warming and Greenland melting, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 12,252-12,260, doi:10.1002/2016GL070457. EOS Research Spotlight.

Meehl, G.A., A. Hu, B. D. Santer, and S.-P. Xie, 2016, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation contributions to twentieth-century global surface temperature trends, Nature Climate Change, 6, 1005-1008, doi:10.1038/nclimate3107.

Meehl, G.A., A. Hu, and H. Teng, 2016, Initialized decadal prediction for transition to positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and resumption of larger rates of global warming, Nature Communication, 7, 11718, doi:10.1038/ncomms11718.

Hu, A., S. Levis, G. A. Meehl, W. Han, W. Washington, K. Oleson, B. van Ruijven, M. He, and G. Strand, 2016, Impact of Solar Panels on global climate. Nature Climate Change, 6, 290-294, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2843.

Liu, W. and A. Hu, 2015, The role of the PMOC in modulating the deglacial shift of the ITCZ. Climate Dynamics, 45, 3019-3034, doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2520-6.

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl, W. Han, B. Otto-Bliesner, A. Abe-Ouchi, N. Rosenbloom, 2015, Effects of the Bering Strait closure on AMOC and global climate under different background climates. Progress in Oceanography, 132, 174-196, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.02.004.

Sejas, S. A., M. Cai, A. Hu, G. A. Meehl, W. Washington, P. C. Taylor, 2014: Individual Feedback Contributions to the Seasonality of Surface Warming, J. Climate, 27, 5653-5669, DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00658.1.

Lu, J., A. Hu,, Z. Zeng, 2014: On the possible interaction between internal climate variability and forced climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 2962-2970, doi:10.1002/2014GL059908.

Han, W., G. A. Meehl, A. Hu, M. A. Alexander, T. Yamagata, D. Yuan, M. Ishii, P. Pegion, J. Zheng, B. D. Hamlington, X. Quan, and R. R. Leben, 2014: Intensification of decadal and multi-decadal sea level variability in the western tropical Pacific during recent decades, Climate Dynamics, 43, 1357-1379, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1951-1.

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl, W. Han, J. Lu, and W. G. Strand, 2013: Energy balance in a warm world without the ocean conveyor belt and sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6242-6246, doi:10.1002/2013GL05812340.

Wu, B., D. Handorf, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and A. Hu, 2013: Winter Weather Patterns over Northern Eurasia and Arctic Sea Ice Loss. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 3786-3800, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00046.1.

Taylor, P. C., M. Cai, A. Hu, G. A. Meehl, W. M. Washington, G. J. Zhang, 2013, A Decomposition of Feedback Contributions to Polar Warming Amplification, J Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00696, 26, 7023-7043.

Meehl, G. A., A. Hu, J. M. Arblaster, J. Fasullo, and K. E.Trenberth, 2013, Externally forced and internally generated decadal climate variability associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, J. Climate, 26, 7298-7310.

Meehl, G. A., W. M. Washington, J. M. Arblaster, A. Hu, H. Teng, J. E. Kay, A. Gettelman, D. M. Lawrence, B. M. Sanderson, and W. G. Strand, 2013, Climate change projections in CESM1(CAM5) compared to CCSM4, J Climate, 26, 6287-6308.

Hu, A. and C. Deser, 2013, Uncertainty in future regional sea level rise due to internal climate variability, Geophys. Res. Lett. , 40, 2768-2772, doi:10.1002/grl.50531. ( EOS Research Spotlight)

Hu, A., Y. Xu, C. Tebaldi, W. M. Washington, V. Ramanathan*, 2013, Slowing down 21st century sea level rise through mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants, Nature Climate Change, 3, 730-734, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1869. NCAR News Release; NSF News Release; CLimate Central News Release; Scripps News Release. *corresponding author.

Liu, W., Z. Liu, A. Hu, 2013, The stability of an evolving Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett.,40, 1562-1568, doi:10.1002/grl.50365.

Gregory, J. M., D. Bi, M. A. Collier, M. R. Dix, A. C. Hirst, A. Hu, M. Huber, R. Knutti, S. J. Marsland, M. Meinshausen, H. A. Rashid, L. D. Rotstayn, A. Schurer, J. A. Church, 2013, Climate models without pre-industrial volcanic forcing underestimate historical ocean thermal expansion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1600-1604, doi:10.1002/grl.50339. ( EOS Research Spotlight)

Zhang, G. J., Ming Cai, and A. Hu, 2013, Energy consumption and the unexplained winter warming over northern Asia and North America, Nature Climate Change, 3, 466-470, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1803. NCAR News Release; Scripps Institute of Oceanography news release; Florida State University News Release

Hu, A., G.A. Meehl, W. Han, J. Yin, B. Wu, M. Kimoto, 2013, Influence of continental ice retreat on future global climate, J. Climate,26, 3087-3111, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00102.1.

Meehl, G. A., A. Hu, C. Tebaldi, J. M. Arblaster, W. M. Washington, H. Teng, B. Sanderson, T. Ault, W. G. Strand, and J. B. White III, 2012, Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea level rise, Nature Climate Change, 576-580, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1529.

Meehl, G. A., W. M. Washington, J. M. Arblaster, A. Hu, H. Teng, C. Tebaldi, W. G. Strand, and J. B. White III, 2012, Climate system response to external forcings and climate change projections in CCSM4, J. of Climate, 25, 3661-3683.

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl, W. Han, A. Timmermann, B. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, W. M. Washington, W. Large, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. Kimoto, K. Lambeck, and B. Wu, 2012, Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability, Preceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 6421-6422, doi:10.1073/pnas.1116014109. Science Now Report;PNAS Article Highlights NCAR's Report on Bering Strait

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl, W. Han, A. Abe-Ouchi, C. Morrill, Y. Okazaki, M. O. Chikamoto, 2012, The Pacific-Atlantic Seesaw and the Bering Strait, Geophys. Res. Lett., L03702, doi:10.1029/2011GL050567. (EOS Research Spotlight** )

Meehl, G. A., J. M. Arblaster, J. T. Fasullo, A. Hu, K. E. Trenberth, 2011, Model-based evidence of deep-ocean heat uptake during surface-temperature hiatus periods, Nature Climate Change, 1, 360-364, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1229.

Yin, J. J. T. Overpack, S. M. Griffies, A. Hu, J. L. Rusell, and R. J. Stouffer, 2011, Different Magnitudes of Projected Subsurface Ocean Warming Around Greenland and Antarctica, Nature Geoscience, 4, 524-528, doi:10.1038/NGEO1189.

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl, W. Han and J. Yin, 2011, Effect of the Potential Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning Circulation and Global Climate in the Future, Deep Sea Res. Part II, 58, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.069, 1914-1926.

Han, W., G. A. Meehl, B. Rajagopalan, J. T. Fasullo, A. Hu, J. Lin, W. G. Large, J-W Wang, X-W Quan, L. L. Trenary, A. Wallcraft, T. Shinoda and S. Yeager, 2010, Patterns of Indian Ocean sea-level change in a warming climate, Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/NGEO901, 546-550.

Meehl, G. A., A. Hu and C. Tebaldi, 2010, Decadal prediction in the Pacific region, J. Climate, 23, DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3296.1, 2959-2973.

Hu, A, G. A. Meehl, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, C. Waelbroeck, W. Han, M-F. Loutre, K. Lambeck, J. X. Mitrovica and N. Rosenbloom, 2010, Influence of Bering Strait flow and North Atlantic circulation on glacial sea level changes, Nature Geosciences, doi:10.1038/NGEO729, 3, 118-121. NCAR Press Release; NSF Press Release

Timmermann, A., L. Menviel, Y. Okumura, A. Schilla, U. Merkel, A. Hu, B. Otto-Bliesner, M. Schulz, 2010, Towards a quantitative understanding of millennial-scale Antarctic Warming events, Quaternary Science Review, 29, doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.06.021, 74-85.

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl, W. Han, and J. Yin, 2009, Transient Response of the MOC and Climate to Potential Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the 21st Century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10707, doi:10.1029/2009GL037998.( Paper**) NCAR Press Release; AGU Press Release; NSF Press Release; A summary of media coverage.

Hu, A. and G. A. Meehl, 2009, Effect of the Atlantic hurricanes on the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and heat transport , Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03702, doi:10.1029/2008GL036680. ( Paper**)

Okumura, Y. M., C. Deser, A. Hu, Axel Timmermann and Shang-Ping Xie, 2009, North Pacific Climate Response to Freshwater Forcing in the Subarctic North Atlantic: Oceanic and Atmospheric Pathways, J Clim., 22, 1424-1445.

Meehl, G. A., A. Hu, and B. D. Santer, 2009, The mid-1970s climate shift in the Pacific and the relative roles of forced versus inherent decadal variability, J Clim, 22, 780-792.

Hu, A., B. L. Otto-Bliesner, G. A. Meehl, W. Han, C. Morrill, E. C. Brady and B. Briegleb, 2008, Response of Thermohaline Circulation to Freshwater Forcing under Present Day and LGM Conditions, J Climate, 21, 2239-2258. ( Paper)

Han, W., P. J. Webster, J. Lin, W. T. Liu, R. Fu, D. Yuan, and A. Hu, 2008, Dynamics of intraseasonal sea level and thermocline variability in the equatorial Atlantic during 2002-2003, J. of Physical Oceanography, 38, 945-967.

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl and W. Han, 2007, Causes of a fresher, colder northern North Atlantic in late 20th century in a coupled model, Progress in Oceanography, 73, 384-405, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2006.07.008.(Paper )

Timmermann, A., Y. Okumura, S.-I. An, A. Clement, B. Dong, E. Guilyardi, A. Hu, J. Jungclaus, U. Krebs, M. Renold, T. F. Stocker, R. J. Stouffer, R. Sutton, S.-P. Xie, J. Yin, 2007, The influence of a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on ENSO, J. Climate, 20, 4899-4919.

Hu, A., G. A. Meehl and W. Han, 2007, Role of the Bering Strait in the thermohaline circulation and abrupt climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05704, doi:10.1029/2006GL028906.(Paper** )

Han, W., G. A. Meehl and A. Hu, 2006, Interpretation of tropical thermocline cooling in the Indian and Pacific Oceans during recent decades, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23615, doi:10.1029/2006GL027982.

Meehl, G. A., W. M. Washington, B. D. Santer, W. D. Collins, J.M. Arblaster, A. Hu, D. M. Lawrence, H. Teng, L. E. Buja, W. G. Strand, 2006, Climate change projections in the 21st century and climate change commitment in the CCSM3, J. Climate, 19, 2597-2616.

Meehl, G. A. and A. Hu, 2006, Megadroughts in the Indian monsoon and southwest North America and a mechanism for associated multi-decadal Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies, J. Climate, 19, 1605-1623.

Stouffer, R.J., J. Yin, J.M. Gregory, K.W. Dixon, M.J. Spelman, W. Hurlin, A.J. Weaver, M. Eby, G.M. Flato, H. Hasumi, A. Hu, J. Jungclause, I.V. Kamenkovich, A. Levermann, M. Montoya, S. Murakami, S. Nawrath, A. Oka, W.R. Peltier, D.Y. Robitaille, A. Sokolov, G. Vettoretti, N. Weber (2006), Investigating the Causes of the Response of the Thermohaline Circulation to Past and Future CLimate Changes, J. Climate, 19, 1365-1387.

Otto-Bliesner, B., S.J. Marshall, J.T. Overpeck, G.H. Miller, A. Hu, CAPE Last Interglacial Project members, 2006, Simulating Arctic climate warmth and icefield retreat in the last interglaciation, Science, 311, 1751-1753.

Hu, A. and G. A. Meehl, 2005, Bering Strait throughflow and the thermohaline circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24610, doi:10.1029/2005GL024424. (Paper**)

Hu, A. and G. A. Meehl, 2005: Reasons for a fresher northern North Atlantic in the late 20th Century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L11701,doi:1029/2005GL022900. (Paper**)

Gregory, J.M., K.W. Dixon, R. J. Stouffer, A. J.Weaver, E. Driesschaert, M. Eby, T. Fichefet, H. Hasumi, A. Hu, J. H. Jungclaus, I.V. Kamenkovich, A. Levermann, M. Montoya, S. Murakami, S. Nawrath, A. Oka, A. P. Sokolov, R. B. Thorpe, 2005: A model intercomparison of changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12703,doi:10.1029/2005GL023209. (Paper**)

Dai, Aiguo, A. Hu, G.A. Meehl, W.M. Washington and W.G. Strand, 2005: Atlantic thermohaline circulation in a coupled general circulation model: Unforced variations vs. forced changes. J. Clim. , 18, 3270-3293.

Meehl, G. A., W. M. Washington, W. D. Collins, J.M. Arblaster, A. Hu, L. E. Buja, W. G. Strand, H. Teng, 2005: How much more global warming and sea level rise. Science, 307, 1769-1772.

Hu, A., Gerald A. Meehl, and Weiqing Han, 2004: Detecting thermohaline circulation changes from ocean properties in a coupled model. Geophys. Res. Lett, 31, L13204, doi:10.1029/2004GL020218. (Paper**)

Hu, A., G.A. Meehl, W.M. Washington, A. Dai, 2004: Response of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation to increased atmospheric CO2 in a coupled model , J. Climate, 17, 4267-4279. (Paper*)

Han, W., P. Webster, R. Lukas, P. Hacker, and A. Hu, 2004: Impact of atmospheric intraseasonal variability in the Indian Ocean: low-frequency rectification in equatorial surface current and transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1350-1372.

G.A. Meehl, W.M. Washington, J.M. Arblaster, and A. Hu, 2004: Factors affectiing climate sensitivity in global coupled models. J. Climate, 17, 1584-1596.

Hu, A., Claes Rooth, Rainer Bleck and Clara Deser 2002: NAO influence on sea ice extent in the Eurasian coastal region, Geopys. Res. Lett., 29(22), 2053, doi:10.1029/2001GL014293. (Paper**)

Tao, Zuyu, A. Hu, 1994: The blocking high and transient disturbances in Mei-yu period of 1991. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 52, 231-234 (in Chinese).

Tao, Zuyu, A. Hu, 1994: Climatological analysis of transient eddy in the Northern Hemisphere winter, Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Science, 18, 175-184.

Tao, Zuyu, A. Hu, 1994: Climatological analysis of transient eddy in the Northern Hemisphere winter, Scienca Atmospherica Ainica, 18 (no. 3), 320-330 (in Chinese).